What is a Treasury Stock? Working, Uses & Limitation | Share India
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The term “treasury stocks” is used to describe shares of a business's stock that have been repurchased by the firm through a variety of strategies, including open market purchases, stock buybacks, or employee stock option exercises. They are not regarded as outstanding shares since they are kept in the company's treasury, which means that shareholders do not own them and do not have voting rights. For a number of reasons, including increasing the value of the remaining shares by lowering the number of outstanding shares, boosting financial ratios like earnings per share, or offering liquidity for employees exercising stock options, companies may repurchase their own stock. The corporation can also use the treasury stock for a variety of things, such as awarding bonuses to staff, making acquisitions, or making strategic investments. Treasury shares do not appear on the balance sheet of the corporation as cash or cash equivalents. Instead, a stock account called "treasury stock" is used to track the cost of treasury stock.

Source of Treasury Stocks:

Treasury stock can originate from a number of different places on the Indian stock market, including:

  • Share buybacks: Indian businesses have the option to repurchase their own shares on the open market. These shares are then kept in the business's treasury.

  • Employee stock options: Indian businesses may grant stock options to staff members, enabling them to buy shares at a reduced cost. The shares are repurchased by the business and kept in the treasury when employees exercise these options.

  • Dematerialization: Shares may also result from the process of dematerialization, in which physical shares are transformed into electronic form and then maintained in a company account where they are referred to as “treasury stocks.”

  • Acquisitions and mergers: When one firm buys another, the shares of the acquired company are turned into the acquiring company's treasury stock.

  • Government disinvestment: The government can also sell its position in a PSU through an IPO or a follow-on public offering (FPO). The government then holds the remaining shares, which are referred to as Treasury Stocks.

Indian corporations are obligated to publish information about their Treasury stock in their annual reports as well as notify the stock exchange of any share buybacks or other acquisitions.

Purpose of Treasury Shares

The aim of owning Treasury shares can change based on the business strategy and financial objectives. Companies frequently maintain treasury shares for the following reasons:

  • Buybacks of company shares: By lowering the total number of outstanding shares, companies can improve the value of their remaining shares. Additionally, this can enhance financial ratios like earnings per share.

  • Employee stock options: To provide liquidity for staff exercising these options, companies may repurchase shares using employee stock options.

  • Managing Capital: Treasury shares can be held by businesses to give them the freedom to manage their capital structure. They might use the shares, for instance, to make upcoming acquisitions or to give employees bonus shares.

  • Authority Treasury shares may be held by companies to preserve ownership of the business, particularly when a hostile takeover is a possibility.

  • Support stock price: In the event of a decline in market conditions, companies may maintain treasury shares to support the stock price.

  • Investments for the future: Businesses may maintain treasury shares to make investments for the future or seize growth opportunities.

  • Distribution to shareholders: Businesses may keep treasury shares on hand in order to split or pay out dividends to shareholders at a later time.

  • Investors should consider a business's treasury share position as part of their overall study of the firm because every company holds treasury shares for different reasons and according to different plans.

Limitations of the Treasury Stock Method

There are several advantages to holding Treasury stock, but there are also some disadvantages to take into account:

  • Liquidity reduction: Repurchasing shares may result in fewer outstanding shares, which may make it more challenging for investors to buy or sell shares on the market.

  • Reduced cash flow: Repurchasing shares can be expensive for a corporation and lower the amount of money available for other investments or business ventures.

  • Reduced earnings per share: As fewer shares are outstanding, earnings per share may rise, but this may be deceptive if the company isn't actually growing its earnings.

  • Reduced Return on Equity: Treasury Stock is not regarded as an asset and does not produce any income, it may lower the company's return on equity.

  • Investors' Perspective: Share repurchases are seen as an indication that management is optimistic about the company's future prospects. However, if the repurchase is not properly scheduled or carried out, it could convey the wrong message to investors and have a detrimental impact on the stock price.

  • Limited Flexibility: The company's options for employing the shares are limited once they are in the treasury. They don't provide any income and cannot be sold or put up as security for loans.

  • Opportunity Cost: Having treasury shares can result in the company missing out on prospects for growth since the funds used to buy back shares were instead allocated to other investments. Consider the potential disadvantages when analysing a company's total position in treasury stock.  Learn more about bonus shares and how they can benefit you.

Treasury Stock Methods That Can Help Companies Grow

Through a procedure known as a “share buyback” or “stock repurchase,” corporations can purchase their own shares. Companies can do buybacks in a few different ways, including:

  • Open market purchase: Just like any other investor, companies may buy back shares on the open market. This is the most popular repurchase strategy because it enables businesses to buy shares at the current market price.

  • Tender offer: Businesses have the option to issue a tender offer to shareholders in order to repurchase a set number of shares for a set price. The corporation will buy the shares that are tendered, whether shareholders decide to sell them or not.

  • Dutch auction: Businesses can arrange a Dutch auction, in which they specify a range of prices and ask shareholders to surrender their shares at a price within that range. Following that, the corporation will buy shares at the lowest price required to acquire the required number of shares.

  • Privately negotiated deals: Businesses can bargain with a particular shareholder or a group of shareholders to buy their shares, typically at a premium over the going rate. Once purchased, shares cease to be outstanding and are kept in the company's treasury, which means they are no longer owned by stockholders and do not enjoy voting rights. Indian companies are required to include information about their share buybacks in both their annual report and their notice to the stock exchange, including the number of shares to be repurchased, the price, and the length of the buyback.



Now that you know & understand about treasury shares and the impact  they have on the company financials. Companies may also opt to cancel repurchased shares and permanently reduce share capital. Overall, treasury shares provide companies greater flexibility in shareholder returns and capital structure management. You can learn more about the stock market concept & its fundamentals from Share India. Open a demat account with Share India to start investing in the stock market.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

An adjustment to equity for treasury shares is shown on a company's balance sheet. The number of Treasury shares is calculated using the following formula. The beginning share number minus the ending share number equals the number of Treasury shares.

The number of shares that have been repurchased by the corporation and are currently kept in its treasury is represented by the difference between the beginning and ending share counts.

Companies repurchase issued and outstanding shares from shareholders for a variety of reasons.
  • for the purpose of reselling

  • To protect your interest

  • Undervaluation

  • Elimination of shares

  • In order to raise financial ratios

Treasury stocks refer to shares of a company that it buys back from shareholders or retains after a buyback. The company can then re-issue these shares later.

Yes, share buybacks are allowed under the Companies Act 2013 in India. Indian companies can buy back up to 25% of their total paid-up equity capital and free reserves.

In a share buyback, the company offers to repurchase shares from existing investors, usually at a premium to the prevailing market price. Investors can choose to participate and sell some shares back to the company.

The benefits of share buybacks are that they improve earnings per share, return surplus cash to shareholders, help support share prices during sluggish markets, and allow the company to consolidate stakes if needed.

No, Indian companies cannot purchase more than 25% of their total paid up capital in a financial year. A complete buyback of shares is not permitted.

The bought back shares are considered treasury stocks. They can be reissued later or canceled. The number of outstanding shares decreases proportionately.
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